The way of greeting someone comes in different forms.Kissing and hugging are normal in some European and Arab countries.Maoris in New Zealand greet each other by rubbing against their noses.However,the most common physical way of greeting people nowadays is handshake.It has become so ubiquitous that you may never have thought about its origins.It's like a part of human nature.
    The modern handshake as a form of greeting is hard to trace.The Quakers are traditionally seen as originators.But as Dutch sociologist Herman Roodenburg—the chief authority for the history of handshaking—wrote in his publication A Cultural History of Gesture,"More than in any other field,the study of gesture is one in which the historian has to make the most of only a few clues."Another well-known evidence of the early tradition of shaking hands took place in the early 17th century.A Scotsman living in England,named James Cleland,suggested that the practice of the good old Scottish shaking of the two right hands"should be observed,instead of things like bowing down to everyone's shoes and kissing hands.
    If you ask why shaking hands is the most preferred way of greeting over other gestures,the most well-known explanation is that handshaking prevents the right hand from holding a weapon.In the 19th century it was argued that shaking hands without removing gloves was quite rude and required an immediate apology.
    Shaking hands seems like a gesture that has been around forever.However,in 1880's France,a society had been formed to abolish the handshake as a"vulgar"English novelty.And now in the US that gesture may fall away in favor of the fist hump.While the fist bump is a cooler way to greet someone,the reason may have been more practical.According to survey participants,they did not want to shake hands be-cause they were afraid of catching and spreading germs(细菌).

(1)How does Maoris in New Zealand greet each other?

A.By hugging.
B.By kissing.
C.By rubbing against noses.
D.By nodding.
(2)What does Paragraph 2 mainly discuss about the modern handshake?

A.The importance.
B.The history.
C.The feature.
D.The classification.
(3)Why did people shake hands using right hands according to the most famous explanation?

A.For convenience.
B.For politeness.
C.For enjoyment.
D.For safety.
(4)What can be inferred from the last paragraph?

A.Everyone doesn't fall in love with the handshake.
B.The root of handshake is lost in the sands of time.
C.It might seem like shaking hands is an ancient custom.
D.A handshake is among the most common ways to greet others.
  • 1.    Smile:It's a family photo!While your background might not be a foreign place or an international landmark,it's still important to capture your family's current experiences for future reference and enjoyment.Here are five ideas to consider:
        ①People pictures stand the test of time
        Including people,especially your loved ones.In your shot adds tremendous(极大的)interest.Encourage family members to be the focus of landscape images,providing con text and great memories.Overtime,you may not remember that towering forest or the flower-strewn grassland.But you will recall the memories made in that location.
        ②Capture color
        Whether you travel near or far,markets;parades (游行) and streetscapes will often provide a lot of colorful subjects and unique experiences that will help tell the story of your family adventure.At the market,for example,be on the lookout for brightly colored vegetables,fruits,meat or fish unlike those in your local grocery store.Inspire your children's natural curiosity by asking the seller to explain the origin of items.
        ③Give animal photos a shot
        Whether at the zoo,in the countryside or in a national park,shooting photos of animals can be an enriching experience.Will you get the shot when the lion roars,the giraffe reaches upward or the monkey swings from the branch?
        ④Ge t in on the action
        It's fun to capture the movement and the excitement of the adventure.Whether it's a swing or slide in a nearby park,a child running through a field,rafting(漂流) through the rapids or biking down at rail,capture the action in an image or video.
        ⑤Seek beauty
        Focus on the small details of everyday life.Look for the beauty found in blooming wildflowers,the fluttering wings of a hummingbird,a bird building a nest,shifting clouds or a full moon.
        Consider sharing your favorite pictures with friends and family in distant places.They will likely take comfort in the connection and the glory of your extraordinary images.

    (1)Who is the passage intended for?

    A.Someone who loves his family.
    B.People who are good at finding beauty.
    C.People who want to take good family photos.
    D.Someone who wants to capture the family experiences.
    (2)The underlined part " stand the test of time"in Paragraph 2 can be understood as
    A.Your pictures can help bring back memories
    B.Your pictures can be stored for a long time
    C.The family members in the pictures will live forever
    D.The family members must stand for a long time while being photographed
    (3)According to Paragraph 3,what is the purpose of asking the seller to explain the origin of goods?

    A.To get the kids interested.
    B.To add more colors into your pictures.
    C.To better understand the local customs.
    D.To get along well with the seller.
    (4)According to the passage,to take good family pictures,you'd better NOT
    A.shoot animals
    B.shoot while your family members are rafting through the rapids
    C.miss the little details of everyday life
    D.focus on the shifting clouds
    (5)Where is the passage probably taken from?

    A.An ad website.
    B.A fiction book.
    C.A travel magazine.
    D.An environmental report.
  • 2.    Chen Xingrong's favorite activity is hopping onto the swing and dangling around,set up by his father to help him learn how to swim without water.
        "When he is happy,he jumps on the swing and smiles from ear to ear," says Chen's father Chen Xunhu. "But he is a big boy now,and the swing has become a bit too small for him."
        Chen Xingrong,16,was diagnosed with autism when he was a baby.
        Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by varying degrees of impairment in communication skills and social interactions.
        In spite of all the hardships in life,Chen Xingrong managed to become an outstanding swimmer,thanks to relentless training and the love and support of his family and community members.
        Chen Xingrong could not utter a word until he was 2 years old.After being diagnosed with autism,his parents were worried.
        Chen Xunhu began traveling to big cities to learn more about autism.He quit his job and devoted his full attention to the topic of autism.
        In 2012,Chen Xunhu learned that swimming could help people with autism so he spent months learning how to swim by watching videos and reading books.
        "I spent three months teaching my son,but the efforts were in vain," he recalls.
        To his surprise,after another three months,he discovered that his son had developed the ability to control his breath under water,which significantly boosted his confidence.
        In October,the father took his son to participate in the 11th National Paralympic Games and the eighth Special Olympics.
        His son managed to claim five medals,including a gold.
        As well as swimming,learning basic life skills is also an important part of life for a teenager with autism.
        Chen Xunhu has made great efforts to make people in their community understand autism better.
        In 2010,an autism-themed film,titled Ocean Heaven,hit the big screen in China. It depicts how a terminally ill father attempts to teach his son the necessary life skills to live without him.
        Thereafter,Chen Xunhu organized about 500 people to watch the film together hoping the public to know more about autistic people
        Thanks to his father's perseverance,Chen Xingrong has learned to buy food in the market.He also does voluntary jobs at supermarkets and fast-food restaurants.
        "He is part of the community,and I hope he will live a wonderful life in the future."

    (1)What does the underlined word "It" stand for?

    A.an autism-themed film
    B.the big screen
    C.the big screen in China
    D.the ocean
    (2)According to the author,which of the following elements characterize autism?

    A.different degrees of communication skills
    B.impaired listening skills
    C.a lack of social interactions
    D.a neurodevelopmental disorder
    (3)What is the purpose of Paragraph 7?

    A.To show that autism was a severe disease.
    B.To show how tiring the healing process could be for the patients.
    C.To show how much the father loved his son.
    D.To show how the father cared about the topic of autism.
  • 3.    A young Dutch inventor is widening his effort to clean up floating plastic from the Pacific Ocean by moving into rivers,using his new floating machine to catch garbage before it reaches the seas.
       On October 26,Boyan Slat presented his solar-powered device "Interceptor," which removes plastic from rivers as it floats past.
       "We need to close the tap,which means preventing more plastic from reaching the ocean in the first place," he said,calling rivers "the arteries(动脉)that carry the trash from land to sea." Experts say 9 million tons of plastic waste,including plastic bottles,bags,and toys,flows annually into the ocean from rivers and streams,endangering life in the oceans.
       The machine has a shaped nose to block away larger floating waste like tree trunks.It works by guiding plastic waste into an opening in its bow,a conveyor belt(转送带)then carries the trash into the machine where it is dropped into waste containers.It sends a text message to local operators who can come and empty it when it's full.
       Three of the machines have already been put into practice in Indonesia,Malaysia and Vietnam.Malaysian government official lzham Hashim was present at the launch and said he was delighted to witness the project.
       "It has been used for 2 months in the river and it's doing very well." Slat said.1,000 rivers are responsible for some 80 percent of plastic pouring into the world's oceans. "I want to settle them all in the next five years.This is not going to be easy,but imagine if we do get this done," he told his enthusiastic supporters, "we'll truly make our oceans clean again."
       Jan van Franeker of the Wageningen Marine Research Institute said the new machine looks promising. "They have finally moved toward the source of the litter," he said in a telephone interview. "The design,from what I can see,is awesome."

    (1)Why does the author quote Slat and experts' words in paragraph 3?

    A.To stress the importance of rivers.
    B.To prove the severity of the pollution.
    C.To show their insight into the problem.
    D.To explain the background of the invention.
    (2)What is paragraph 4 mainly about?

    A.The responsibility of the operator.
    B.The function of the conveyor belt.
    C.The working principle of the device.
    D.The critical role of the shaped nose.
    (3)Which of the following words best describe Slat?

    A.Ambitious and innovative.
    B.Optimistic and humorous.
    C.Confident and honest.
    D.Talented and proud.
    (4)What does Franeker think of the new machine?

    A.It takes time to improve.
    B.It has a bright future.
    C.Its design is disappointing.
    D.Its appearance is attractive.
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