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    SF or sci-fi,short for science fiction,is a form of fiction that deals mainly with the impact of actual or imagined science upon society or individuals.It appeared in the West,where the social transformations brought about by the Industrial Revolution first led writers and intellectuals (知识分子) to think of the future impact of technology,and was popularized in the 1920s by the American publisher Hugo Gernsback.The Hugo Awards,given annually since 1953 by the World Science Fiction Society,are named after him.
    Science fiction writers,whose themes are around space travel,robots,alien beings,and time travel,etc.,often seek out new scientific and technical developments in order to forecast freely the techno-social changes.Though writers in antiquity sometimes dealt with themes common to modern science fiction,their stories made no attempt at scientific and technological explanation,the feature that distinguishes (区分) science fiction from earlier imaginative writing,such as fantasies and horror works.
    Science fiction itself comes in two main types:hard sci-fi and soft sci-fi.Hard science fiction is based on scientific accuracy and known facts,featuring "real" science.This approach can enhance the authenticity of the story and the idea that the plot's event could,likely,happen.Examples of hard science fiction include Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea,The Time Machine,etc.Soft science fiction places greater emphasis on the human aspects of the story,integrating sciences of human behaviour.Mary Shelley's Frankenstein,Robert A.Heinlein's Stranger in a Strange Land,and Ursula K.Le Guin's The Left Hand of Darkness are all soft science fiction novels.
    The purpose of this genre (体裁) is to explore the possible about the unknown.It gives readers an idea of what might happen in the future if certain events—such as scientific breakthroughs or technological advances—come to pass and how humans might respond accordingly.Given its imaginative nature,science fiction inspires readers to forecast a more advanced,innovative,and adventurous future.
    Science fiction is creative ground for filmmakers.Besides,there are plenty of science fiction themes of popular small-screen programmes on television,as well as in graphic novels and comic books.

(1)What's mainly discussed in the first paragraph?

A.The origin of sci-fi.
B.An introduction of Hugo Awards.
C.The functions of Industrial Revolution.
D.The impact of writers and intellectuals in the 1920s.
(2)Why does not earlier imaginative writings belong to sci-fi?

A.They are not created in modern times.
B.Their themes are uncommon to modern sci-fi's.
C.They are based on neither science nor technology.
D.Their explanations cannot be understood by modern people.
(3)Which can replace the underlined word "authenticity" in Paragraph 3?

(4)Which is the most suitable title for the text?

A.Sci-Fi Writers
B.Hard Sci-Fi and Soft Sci-Fi
C.Science Fiction
D.Sci-Fi Filmmakers
  • 1.    Whales are threatened by a variety of human activities off the West Coast of the United States,including fishing,ship traffic,and pollution.They have bad effects on whale populations,but are rarely addressed by current whale-protection policies in California,according to a study from the University of California,Davis.
        The study,published for open access this week in the journal Marine Policy,examines the main causes of death for nine whale species in the California Current Ecosystem,which stretches from British Columbia,Canada to Baja California,Mexico.The whales considered in the study include gray,blue,fin,minke,North Pacific right,and killer whales.
        "We find that it is people that deem fishing causes whale death," said co-leading author Eliza Oldach. "But a number of human activities have made the modern ocean a really tough environment for whales to survive.We're excited about efforts that look broadly to rebuild healthy oceans."
        The report found that main contributors to whale death are currently,targeted with relevant policy responses:noise,water quality and marine (海洋的) rubbish.But three other threats-nutritional stress,disease and predation (捕食) -need to also be considered to provide a more whole approach toward managing whale deaths.
        "Gray whales migrate (迁徙) over 5,000 miles between their breeding grounds at either end of the California Current," said co-leading author Helen Killeen. "Throughout their journey,they must pass through a large number of human activities,fighting with changes to their environment caused by climate change."
        The study comes as the California Ocean Protection Council (COPC) aims to develop a plan for achieving zero death for whales in the California Current Ecosystem this year.Achieving such a goal requires understanding the key drivers of whale deaths and opportunities for policy change,the report said.

    (1)Which activity will lead to whales' death?

    A.Going fishing with your friends in a river.
    B.Playing with your friends beside the sea.
    C.Going sailing with your family on weekends.
    D.Throwing rubbish in the sea as you are playing.
    (2)What's meaning of the underlined word "deem" in Paragraph 3?

    (3)What can we learn from Helen's words?

    A.Gray whales are fond of travelling.
    B.Gray whales' migration is full of danger.
    C.Human being is the only killer of whales.
    D.Whales' death is mainly caused by climate.
    (4)What should COPC do prevent whales' death?

    A.Get rid of the present policy.
    B.Plant more trees along the sea.
    C.Know what actually leads to it.
    D.Find a right place for them to live.
  • 2.    Swot satellite is scheduled to be launched Thursday morning to conduct a comprehensive survey of Earth's vital resource.By using advanced microwave radar technology it will collect height﹣surface measurements of oceans,lakes and rivers in high﹣definition detail over 90% of the globe.It's rally the first time to observe nearly all water on the planet's surface.
        The major mission is to explore how oceans absorb atmospheric heat and carbon dioxide in a natural process that adjusts climate change.Oceans are estimated to have absorbed more than 90%,of the extra heat trapped in the Earth's atmosphere by human﹣caused greenhouse gases.Swot will scan,the seas and precisely measure fine differences in surface elevations (高度)(漩涡),where much of the oceans' decrease of heat and carbon is believed to occur. "Studying the mechanism will help climate scientists answer a key question:What is the turning point at which oceans start releasing,rather than absorbing,rather than limiting it," said NadyaShiffer
        By comparison,earlier studies of water bodies relied on data of rivers or oceans taken at specific,points,requiring scientists to fill in data gaps through extrapolation (外推法).Thanks to the radar instrument
        "Rather than giving us a line of elevations,it's giving us a map of elevations,and that's just a total game changer,Swot freshwater science leader.

    (1)What do the underlined words "vital resource" in the first paragraph refer to?

    (2)What is the major mission of Swot satellite?

    A.To explore where oceans absorb heat and CO2.
    B.To explain why greenhouse gas comes into being.
    C.To identify when global warming is worsened.
    D.To study how oceans influence climate change.
    (3)What is an advantage Swot has over previous satellites?

    A.It fills in data gaps automatically by extrapolation.
    B.It contributes to mapping the observation accurately.
    C.It covers specific rivers and oceans in one dimension.
    D.It keeps track of the weather change at any time of day.
    (4)Which is the most suitable title for the text?

    A.First Global Water Survey from Space
    B.Successful Launch of Swot Satellite
    C.A Breakthrough in Space Travel.
    D.A Solution to Climate Change
  • 3.    TCM is short for Traditional Chinese Medicine.TCM,which has a history of more than 2,500 years in China, (1)
    (play) a big role in treating patients infected with COVID-19 so far.Let's look at (2)
    it works.TCM cannot kill the virus, (3)
    it can treat patients by removing the trash which causes illness out of human body. (4)
    the trash,the virus will have no room to survive.
        In early February,102 mild patients in Wuhan received therapy with Jinhua Qinggan Granule (颗粒).As (5)
    result,it took only one and a half days for most patients taking it(6)
    (reduce) fever.An experiment of 710 cases (7)
    (conduct) by over 30 hospitals showed the Xuebijing Injection (注射剂),combined with regular (8)
    (treat),can reduce the mortality rate of severe patients by 8.8 percent.(9)
    (basic),TCM is believed to be more effective for disease prevention,while western medicine is (10)
    (good) for serious illnesses.
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