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    What makes a word real?Who has the power to make those kinds of official decisions about words?Those are the questions many people have in mind.When most people say a word isn't real,what they mean is that it doesn't appear in a dictionary.That,of course,raises some other questions,including,who writes dictionaries?
   Now,dictionaries are good resources,but they are changeable.If you ask dictionary editors,what they'll tell you is that they're just trying to keep up with people as people change the language.They're watching what people say and what people write and trying to figure out what's going to stick and what's not going to stick.
   Every January,dictionary editors go to the American Dialect Society Meeting every year,where among other things,they decide on the word of the year.There are about 200 or 300 people who come.Some of them are the best known linguists(语言学家) in the United States.In the past,some of the winners have been "staycation" to describe a vacation spent at home and "tweet" to describe a post made on the social networking service Twitter.
   So how does a word get into a dictionary?It gets in because people use it and people keep using it,and dictionary editors are paying attention to people.If a community of speakers is using a word and knows what it means,it's real.That word might be informal and that word might be a word that you think is illogical(不合逻辑的) or unnecessary,but as long as people are using the word,it is real.I hope that what you can do is to find language change not annoying but fun and interesting,just the way dictionary editors do.I hope you can enjoy being part of the creativity that is continually remaking our language and keeping it alive.

(1)Why do dictionaries change over time?

A.Speakers keep changing language.
B.Linguists often make up new words.
C.Dictionary editors change every year.
D.Words in the dictionary are out of date.
(2)Who has the right to decide the word of the year?

A.New words inventors.
B.American Officials.
C.Dictionary editors.
D.Famous linguists.
(3)What does the underlined word "staycation" mean in paragraph 3?

A.Taking a holiday while working.
B.Working online at home.
C.Staying at home for the moment.
D.Going on a vacation at home.
(4)What is the author's attitude towards language changing?

  • 1.Tips for Learning New Technology We live in a very exciting time.However,with such a wealth of resources,the options of learning new technology can be very difficult. (1)
       What to learn
       The first step,when picking up a new skill,is to determine what to learn.(2)
    .It's important to have this strong inclination(倾向),as it will provide you with the necessary fuel.Once you decide what to learn,reviewing what others have done will give you confidence that you,too,can do it!

       As you explore deeper into the pool of knowledge,you will want to add other forms of information.I encourage you to browse(浏览)through iTunes U.(4)
    .You can listen to and watch what you are learning.This is particularly helpful for those who prefer an academic setting.Besides,there are a handful of websites that offer online education these days.
       Time for action
    .Okay,you've read countless tutorials(教程),watched videos,and have a better understanding of the technology that you've been hoping to learn.What now?Well,it's time to put your knowledge to the test.Eventually,the best way to learn is by doing.Pick a personal project that you can build using this new technology.

    A.Learn to share
    B.Listen and watch
    C.The best way to learn is by doing
    D.I suggest you keep away from your phones
    E.This could be anything you are interested in
    F.It offers complete classes on a variety of topics
    G.The following tips can help you start your learning
  • 2.根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。
    Characteristics of an excellent scientist The dictionary defines a scientist as a person having professional knowledge on one or more sciences,especially natural science or physical science.(1)
    Let's look at some characteristics of an excellent scientist.
       An excellent scientist must be very curious about things.Scientists such as Thomas Edison and George Westinghouse discovered things mainly because they wanted to know how things work. (2)

       Becoming a scientist takes a long time. (3)
    Even if you think you have received some education on science,you still have a lot of scientific research to do.If you're an instant— gratification type of person,this may not be the best choice for you.
       Ethical (道德的) qualities
       In order to truly discover and use knowledge for the greater good,a scientist must have a desire to improve people's life as well as the environment,since they are linked and they can affect one another in the long run.(4)
    Sticking to an old belief contradicted with evidence is dishonest.However,that belief shouldn't be changed without powerful evidence.
       Working habits
    He/ She can work well alone or in groups,depending on what's needed and also needs to communicate thoughts on paper and verbally.Networking connects him/her with colleagues working on similar projects where he/she may discover something new.
    A.To make discoveries,you have to think differently.
    B.There are very few jobs that take longer than this one.
    C.It also defines a scientist as someone who uses scientific methods.
    D.A scientist must report findings honestly regardless of personal interests or public opinion.
    E.One of the main places that many scientists work in is the research laboratory
    F.An excellent scientist even takes notes of the smallest observation and keeps it in mind.
    G.Without a drive to ask questions or even wonder,a scientist will never get to the first stage of the scientific process.
  • 3.假定英语课上老师要求同桌之间交换修改作文,请你修改你同桌写的以下作文,文中共有10处语言错误,每句中最多有两处,每处错误仅涉及一个单词的增加、删改或修改.增加:在缺词处加一个漏字符号(∧),并在其下面写出该加的词.删除:把多余的词用斜线(\)划掉.修改:在错的词下划一横线,并在该词下面写出修改后的词.注意:1 每处错误及其修改均仅限一词;2 只允许修改10处,多者(从第11处起)不计分.
    It was Monday morning, and the writing class had just begin. Everyone was silent, wait to see who would be called upon to read his and her paragraph aloud. Some of us were confident and eager take part in the class activity, others were nervous and anxious. I had done myself homework but I was shy. I was afraid that to speak in front of a larger group of people. At that moment, I remembered that my father once said, "The classroom is a place for learning and that include learning from textbooks, and mistake as well." Immediate, I raised my hand.
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